In the beautiful Sierra Nevada Foothills, in the heart of California’s “Gold Country” lies Sonora. It is the county seat of Tuolumne County, California, with a population of just under five thousand people. Sonora has cool, wet winters and hot, mostly dry summers.
Sonora was incorporated on May 1, 1851, making it one of the oldest cities in California – only ten cities have been incorporated longer – as well as the only incorporated community in Tuolumne County.
Founded in 1848 by Mexican miners from Sonora, Mexico who gave the town its name, Sonora was once a booming center of industry and trade.
Sonora was historically referred to as the ‘Queen of the Southern Mines.’ The city’s prosperity during the late 1800s and early 1900s is evidenced by many historic homes and buildings: a walk along most streets in Sonora allows one to reminisce about days gone by, with brick and stone buildings, slate walls, iron shutters and fences, and historic homes nestled in old fashioned gardens.
This hastily established mining camp took on the identity of a town and, while gold mining was the driving force of the city, it quickly evolved into the commercial, government and cultural center for the region. The prosperity of California’s “mother lode” that drew the gold seekers of yesteryear to this beautiful area is still being discovered today as Sonora remains the center of commerce for the region.
Most of the gold that was removable with traditional mining techniques was quickly extracted, leaving miners to use more complex and expensive mining techniques to reach deep pockets of quartz and gold.
Sonora, like other mining towns of the era, experienced economic hardship when the value of gold decreased. As easier accessible gold deposits dried up, businesses and miners realized extracting the gold cost more than it was worth. As "gold fever" died down, Sonora's size and population steadily decreased over the years. So while the area economy was historically based on the mining and timber industries, it now relies on tourism. One of two active lumber mills in Tuolumne County was shut down in 2009 but reopened in July 2011.
As the area’s cultural center, Sonora is home to museums, art galleries, and live theatre. The city also plays host to numerous festivals and special events throughout the year. Just outside the city limits are year-round outdoor recreational opportunities at resorts, campgrounds, lakes, golf courses and high country waterways. Sonora is an easy drive from the San Francisco Bay Area or the Central Valley. State Highways 108 and 49 pass through the city. As the closest city to Yosemite National Park, which is only seventy miles away, Sonora provides services to some of Yosemite's visitors. The city also benefits from its proximity to Railtown 1897 State Historic Park.
With its rich heritage, historic charm and small town hospitality, visitors and locals alike enjoy a relaxing stroll along the city’s historic main street while shopping in the many specialty and antique shops, taking time out to have a delectable meal in one of its many fine restaurants, bakeries, and coffee houses.
In 1986, Sonora was chosen as one of the first “Main Street” cities in the State of California. Working with the National Trust for Historic Preservation and the California Main Street program, the City Council committed over a quarter of a million dollars in an effort to revitalize the city’s historic downtown. The restoration of the Sonora Opera Hall was a component of this revitalization effort. Elements of the “Main Street” program are now carried on by the Sonora Redevelopment Agency. A local museum serves to remind locals and visitors of the Gold Rush era and what Sonora was once like.
Sonora can look with great pride to its transformation from a country town to a small, vital city that provides a way of life enjoyed by few other communities.
Unfortunately, the town has a dark side. Like many Gold Rush towns, Sonora had a wild reputation in its early days, and today there are new challenges. The poor local economy and the high cost of living have led to a high crime rate: burglary and murder rates have risen to levels comparable with many large cities. Several infamous murderers have resided in the area, including Cary Stayner, the “Yosemite Killer.” Concurrent with economic hardship is rising drug abuse: it’s been said that methamphetamine is king here.
“Wild West” as a tagline could still apply to this area, where the historic charm of mining roots exists side by side with drug labs and the marijuana grows proliferating in the Stanislaus National Forest.
Fortunately for those suffering from addiction, there is a light at the end of the tunnel (or the top of the mine shaft, as it were): reputable centers for substance abuse rehabilitation exist in the area and surrounds, as close as a phone call or Internet search away.